Gold: The simplest investment for complex times

Gold is a clear complement to equities, bonds and broad-based UK investor portfolios. As a store of wealth and a multi-faceted hedge, gold has outperformed many major asset classes while providing robust performance in both rising and falling markets.

Gold can support your investment goals in four key ways:

  • generate long-term returns (Chart 2)
  • act as an effective diversifier and mitigate losses in times of market stress (Chart 5)
  • provide liquidity with no credit risk (Chart 6)
  • improve overall portfolio performance (Chart 7)

New decade, renewed challenges

As the new decade begins, investors face an expanding list of challenges around asset management and portfolio construction. We believe that gold is not only a useful long-term strategic component for portfolios, but one that is increasingly relevant in the current environment (see 2020 Gold Outlook).

Our analysis illustrates that adding between 2% and 10% in gold to a hypothetical average UK investment portfolio over the past decade would have resulted in higher risk-adjusted returns.1

Focus 1: How to invest in gold

The wide variety of gold-backed and gold-related investment products provide many ways to get into gold for every type of investor, but always do your research or speak with your adviser to understand the best product to suit your needs. Below are several of the most widely accessible options:

Physical Gold

Bars and coins come in many denominations and measures of gold content (also called fineness) and account for approximately two-thirds of annual investment gold demand over the past decade. Owning bullion is the simplest way of buying gold but owning physical gold may involve additional costs beyond the initial expense of the gold, including insurance and storage.


Gold-backed ETFs and similar products

First launched in 2003, these type of ETFs and similar products that are backed with physical gold, allow investors to generally track the price of gold. They provide an easy way to access the properties and security of physical gold ownership but without the need to arrange for storage and insurance separately.


Allocated Gold Accounts

Bullion banks offer their high net-worth or institutional customers allocated gold accounts consisting of gold deposits and resembling currency accounts where the investor is the holder of a specific quantity of gold. Unallocated accounts are also available where the investor does not own specific bars or coins but a general entitlement to a set amount of gold.


Internet Investment Gold

An increasingly common way of accessing the gold market is Internet Investment Gold (IIG). Internet Investment Gold allows investors to buy physical gold online, have it stored in professional vaults and take possession of it should the need arise. This offering is a highly convenient way for investors to benefit from outright ownership of physical gold.


Gold Mining Stocks

Investors can also invest in shares of gold mining companies. Gold mining company stocks may correlate with the gold price. However, the growth and return in the stock depend on the expected future earnings of the company, not just on the value of gold.

The increased relevance of gold

Investors have embraced alternatives to traditional equity and bond investments in pursuit of diversification and higher risk-adjusted returns. The share of non-traditional assets among global pension funds, for example, increased from 7% in 1998 to 23% in 2019 (Chart 1).2 And a similar pattern can be seen in the portfolio composition of individual investors.3 


Chart 1: Investors continue to add alternative investments, including gold, to their portfolios*

Chart 1: [UK-ind] Investors continue to add alternative investments, including gold, to their portfolios

Sources: World Gold Council, Willis Towers Watson; Disclaimer

*As of December 2019.


Gold allocations have been recipients of this shift. Gold is increasingly recognised as a mainstream investment as global investment demand has grown by an average of 14% per year since 2001 and the gold price has increased by almost six-fold over the same period.4

The principal factors behind this growth include:

  • Emerging market growth: economic expansion – particularly in China and India – increased and diversified gold’s consumer and investor base
  • Market access: the launch of gold-backed ETFs in 2003 facilitated access to the gold market and materially bolstered interest in gold as a strategic investment, reduced total cost of ownership and increased efficiencies
  • Market risk: the global financial crisis prompted a renewed focus on effective risk management and an appreciation of uncorrelated, highly liquid assets such as gold. Today, trade tensions, the growth of populist politics and concerns about the economic and political outlook have encouraged investors to reexamine gold as a traditional hedge in times of turmoil
  • Monetary policy: persistently low interest rates reduce the opportunity cost of holding gold and highlight its attributes as a source of genuine, long-term returns, particularly when compared to historically high levels of global negative-yielding debt
  • Central bank demand: a surge of interest in gold among central banks across the world, commonly used in foreign reserves for safety and diversification, has encouraged other investors to consider gold’s positive investment attributes.

Gold’s strategic role

Gold is a clear complement to stocks, bonds and broad-based portfolios. A store of wealth and a hedge against systemic risk, currency depreciation and inflation, gold has historically improved portfolios’ risk-adjusted returns, delivered positive returns, and provided liquidity to meet liabilities in times of market stress.

1. A source of returns

Gold is long considered a beneficial asset during periods of uncertainty. Historically, it generated long-term positive returns in both good times and bad. Looking back almost half a century, the price of gold has increased by an average of 12% per year in pound sterling since 1971 when the gold standard collapsed.5 Over this period, gold’s long-term return was comparable to equities and higher than bonds. Gold has also outperformed other major asset classes over the past two decades (Chart 2).

Gold is used to protect and enhance wealth over the long term and it operates as a means of exchange, because it has global recognition and is no one’s liability. Gold is also in demand as a luxury good, valued by consumers across the world. And it is a key component in electronics. These diverse sources of demand give gold a particular resilience: the potential to deliver solid returns in good times and in bad (Focus 2).


Chart 2: Gold has delivered positive returns over the long run, outperforming key asset classes

Chart 2: [UK-ind] Gold has delivered positive returns over the long run, outperforming key asset classes

Avg. annual return of key global assets in pound sterling*

Sources: Bloomberg, ICE Benchmark Administration, World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*As of 31 December 2019. Computations in pound sterling of total return indices for Barclays GBP Cash Index, Barclays Gilts Index, FTSE 100 Index, FTSE All-World ex UK and MSCI Emerging Market indices, Bloomberg Commodity Index and spot for LBMA Gold Price PM. 

Focus 2: Understanding gold valuation

Gold does not conform to most of the common valuation frameworks used for stocks or bonds. Without a coupon or dividend, typical discounted cash flow models fail. And there are no expected earnings or book-to-value ratios either.

Our research shows that, in fact, valuing gold is intuitive: its equilibrium price is determined by the intersection of demand and supply which we highlight with QaurumSM.6

In particular gold’s performance can be explained by four broad sets of drivers:

  • Economic expansion: periods of growth are very supportive of jewellery, technology and long-term savings
  • Risk and uncertainty: market downturns often boost investment demand for gold as a safe haven
  • Opportunity cost: the price of competing assets, especially bonds (through interest rates) and currencies, influence investor attitudes towards gold
  • Momentum: investment flows (during risk-on or risk-off periods), positioning in derivatives markets and price trends can ignite or dampen gold's performance.
Focus 1 - Diagram



Beating inflation, combating deflation

Gold is long considered a hedge against inflation and the data confirms this. The average annual return of 12% over the past 49 years, has outpaced the UK consumer price index (CPI). 

Gold also protects investors against extreme inflation. In years when inflation was higher than 3% gold’s price increased 13% on average (Chart 3). Over the long term, therefore, gold has not just preserved capital but helped it grow. 

Notably too, research by Oxford Economics shows that gold should do well in periods of deflation.7 Such periods are characterised by low interest rates, reduced consumption and investment, and financial stress, all of which tend to foster demand for gold.


Chart 3: [UK-ind] Gold has historically rallied in periods of high inflation

Gold returns in pound sterling as a function of annual inflation*

Sources: Bloomberg, ICE Benchmark Administration, World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*Based on y-o-y changes of the LBMA Gold Price and UK CPI between 1971 and 2019.

**For each year on the sample, real return = (1+nominal return)/(1+inflation)-1.


Outperforming fiat currencies

Investor demand has been boosted by persistently low interest rates and concerns about the outlook for the dollar, as these factors affect the perceived opportunity cost of holding gold.

Historically, major currencies were pegged to gold. That changed with the collapse of Bretton Woods in 1971. Since then, gold has significantly outperformed all major currencies as a means of exchange (Chart 4). This outperformance was particularly marked immediately after the end of the Gold Standard and, subsequently, when major economies defaulted. A key factor behind this robust performance is that the supply growth of gold has changed little over time – increasing by approximately 1.6% per year over the past 20 years.8 By contrast, fiat money can be printed in unlimited quantities to support monetary policy, as exemplified by the Quantitative Easing (QE) measures in the aftermath of the global financial crisis.


Chart 4: [UK-ind] Gold has outperformed all major fiat currencies over time

Relative value between major currencies and gold since 1900*

Sources: Harold Marcuse – UC Santa Barbara, World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*As of 31 December 2019. Based on the annual average price of a currency relative to the gold price.

**The ‘Mark’ was the currency of the late German Empire. It was originally known as the Goldmark and backed by gold until 1914. It was known as the Papermark thereafter.


2. Diversification that works

The benefits of diversification are widely acknowledged—but effective diversifiers are hard to find. Many assets are increasingly correlated as market uncertainty rises and volatility is more pronounced, driven in part by risk-on/risk-off investment decisions. As a result, many so-called diversifiers fail to protect portfolios when investors need them most.

Gold is different, in that its negative correlation to stocks and other risk assets increases as these assets sell off. The 2008-2009 financial crisis is a case in point. Stocks and other risk assets tumbled in value, as did hedge funds, real estate and most commodities, which were long deemed portfolio diversifiers. For example, the FTSE 100 fell by 41% from December 2007 to February 2009. Gold, by contrast increased in price, rising 60% in pound sterling over the same period.9

This robust performance is perhaps not surprising.

Gold has consistently benefited from “flight-to-quality” inflows during periods of heightened risk. It is particularly effective during times of systemic risk, delivering positive returns and reducing overall portfolio losses. Importantly too, gold allows investors to meet liabilities when less liquid assets in their portfolio are difficult to sell, undervalued and possibly mispriced.

But gold’s correlation does not just work for investors during periods of turmoil. It can also deliver positive correlation with stocks and other risk assets in positive markets.

This dual benefit arises from gold’s dual nature: as an investment and a luxury good. As such, the long-term price of gold is supported by income growth. Our analysis bears this out, showing that when stocks rally strongly, their correlation to gold can increase (Chart 5), likely driven by a wealth-effect supporting gold consumer demand as well as demand from investors seeking protection against higher inflation expectations.


Chart 5: [UK-ind] Gold’s correlation with stocks helps portfolio diversification in good and bad economic times

Correlation between UK equities, gold and commodities in various environments of equity performance*

Sources: Bloomberg, ICE Benchmark Administration, World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*As of 31 December 2019. Correlations computed using weekly returns in pound sterling between the FTSE 100 Index and: 1) the Bloomberg Commodity Index; and 2) the LBMA Gold Price PM since January 1990.

The middle bar corresponds to the correlation between the FTSE 100 and gold or commodities, respectively, conditional on the FTSE 100 weekly return falling or rising by less than two standard deviations (or ‘s’), respectively. The bottom bar corresponds to the correlation conditional on FTSE 100 weekly return falling by more than two standard deviations (or ‘s’) respectively, while the top bar corresponds to the FTSE 100 weekly return increasing by more than two standard deviations. The standard deviation is based on the same weekly returns over the full period.


3. A deep and liquid market

The gold market is large, global and highly liquid.

We estimate that physical gold holdings by investors and central banks are worth approximately £2.7 trillion (tn), with an additional £700 billion (bn) in open interest  through derivatives traded on exchanges or the over-the-counter market.10

The gold market is also more liquid than several major financial markets, including German Bunds and European stock markets, while trading volumes are similar to the US short-dated Treasuries (Chart 6). Gold’s trading volumes averaged £114bn per day in 2019. During that period, over-the-counter spot and derivatives contracts accounted for £61bn and gold futures traded £51bn per day across various global exchanges. Gold-backed ETFs offer an additional source of liquidity, with the largest US-listed funds trading an average of £1.5bn per day.

The scale and depth of the market mean that it can comfortably accommodate large, buy-and-hold institutional investors. In stark contrast to many financial markets, gold’s liquidity does not dry up, even at times of acute financial stress.


Chart 6:[UK-ind] Gold trades more than many other major financial assets

Average daily trading volumes in pound sterling*

Sources: Bloomberg, Bank for International Settlements, UK Debt Management Office (DMO), Germany Finance Agency, Japan Securities Dealers Association, London Bullion Market Association, World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*Based on estimated one-year average trading volumes in pound sterling as of 31 December 2019, except for currencies that correspond to March 2019 volumes due to data availability.

**Gold liquidity includes estimates on over-the-counter (OTC) transactions and published statistics on futures exchanges, and gold-backed exchange-traded products. For methodology details visit the liquidity section at


4. Enhanced portfolio performance

Long-term returns, liquidity and effective diversification all benefit overall portfolio performance. In combination, they suggest that a portfolio’s risk-adjusted returns can be materially enhanced through the addition of gold. 

Our analysis of investment performance over the past five, 10 and 20 years underlines gold’s positive impact on an investor's portfolio. For example, the average UK portfolio would have achieved higher risk-adjusted returns if 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% of the portfolio were allocated to gold over the past decade (Chart 7). The positive impact has been particularly marked since the global financial crisis.

In addition to historical back-testing, a more comprehensive optimisation analysis based on New Frontier Advisors Resampled EfficiencyTM shows that pound sterling-based investors can benefit from a material enhancement in performance if they allocate between 2% and 10% of a well-diversified portfolio to gold (Chart 8a).11

The amount of gold varies according to individual asset allocation decisions. Broadly speaking however, the higher the risk in the portfolio – whether in terms of volatility, illiquidity or concentration of assets – the larger the required allocation to gold, within the range in consideration, to offset that risk (Chart 8b)

Our analysis indicates that gold’s optimal weight in hypothetical portfolios is statistically significant even if investors assume an annual return for gold of between 2% and 4% – well below its actual long-term historical performance.

This works equally for investors who already hold other inflation-hedging assets, such as inflation-linked bonds,12 and for investors who hold alternative assets, such as commodities (Focus 3), real estate, private equity and hedge funds.13


Chart 7: [UK -ind] Adding gold over the two decades decade would have increased risk-adjusted returns of a hypothetical average UK investment portfolio

Performance of a hypothetical average UK portfolio with and without gold*

Sources: Bloomberg, ICE Benchmark Administration, PIMFA, World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*Based on performance between 31 December 2009 and 31 December 2019.  Calculations are based on yearly rebalancing of the hypothetical portfolio. The composition of the hypothetical average portfolio is based on a survey conducted by PIMFA (Personal Investment Management and Financial Advice Association) in March 2017 It includes total returns for a 53% allocation to stocks (32% FTSE 100 Index, 21% FTSE All-World ex UK), 32% allocation to fixed income (22% Bloomberg Barclays UK All Bonds Index, 5% Barclays Global Aggregate Corporate Bonds, 5% Barclays GBP Cash Index), and 15% alternative assets (15% Hedge Fund Research Absolute Return Index). Gold’s performance is based on the LBMA Gold price in pound sterling and the respective 2%, 5% and 10% portfolio allocations come from proportionally reducing all assets. See important disclaimers and disclosures at the end of this report.


Chart 8: Gold can significantly improve risk-adjusted returns of hypothetical portfolios across various levels of risk

Chart 8a: [UK -ind] Gold can significantly improve risk-adjusted returns of hypothetical portfolios across various levels of risk

(8a) Optimal allocations that deliver the highest risk-adjusted returns for various hypothetical portfolio types*

Sources: World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*Based on monthly total returns from January 1989 to December 2019 of ICE 3-month Treasury, Bloomberg Barclays US Bond Aggregate, Bloomberg Barclays Global Bond Aggregate ex US, MSCI US, EAFE and EM indices, FTSE Nareit Equity REITs Index, Bloomberg Commodity Index and spot returns of LBMA Gold Price PM. Each hypothetical portfolio composition reflects a percentage in stock (Eqty), alternative assets (Alts), cash and bonds (FI). For example: ‘Average US portfolio allocation’ is a portfolio with 42% in stocks, 30% in REITs, hedge funds, private equity and commodities, and 28% in cash and bonds. Analysis based on New Frontier Advisors Resampled Efficiency. For more information see Efficient Asset Management: A Practical Guide to Stock Portfolio Optimization and Asset Allocation, Oxford University Press, January 2008.


Chart 8b: [UK -ind] Gold can significantly improve risk-adjusted returns of hypothetical portfolios across various levels of risk

(8b) Range of possible optimal gold allocations for varying allocations to other assets within a given portfolio type*

Sources: World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*Optimisation analysis based on New Frontier Advisors “Resampled Efficiency” using monthly returns from January 2000 to December 2019. Data includes total return indices of FTSE 100 Index, FTSE All-World ex UK Index, Bloomberg Barclays UK All Bonds Index, Barclays Global Aggregate Corporate Bond Index, Barclays GBP Cash Index, Hedge Fund Research Absolute Return Index, and FTSE EPRA Developed Europe REIT Index, as well as spot returns of LBMA Gold Price PM, all in pound sterling. Each hypothetical portfolio type reflects a different allocation to cash, bonds, equities, alternative assets and gold. The labels “Conservative”, “Moderate” and “Aggressive” reflect commonly accepted compositions of hypothetical portfolio types based on surveys from organisations such as PIMFA among others. For example, the “Moderate portfolio allocation” holds approximately 40% in cash and bonds, and 60% in stocks, commodities, hedge funds, REITs and gold.  For each given hypothetical portfolio type in Chart 8a, a given color bar section represents the optimal allocation for a corresponding asset class. The portfolio mix corresponds to the allocations to that delivered the highest risk-adjusted return for the total portfolio based on the optimisation analysis. The gold bars in Chart 8b represent the range of all possible optimal gold allocations for each hypothetical portfolio type, based on variations to the allocation of other assets that would still be fall under a “Conservative”, “Moderate” and “Aggressive” composition, respectively. Generally, higher exposure to equities and similar assets resulted in higher optimal allocations for gold, likely to counterbalance the additional risk incurred. For more information on “Resampled Efficiency”, see Efficient Asset Management: A Practical Guide to Stock Portfolio Optimization and Asset Allocation, Oxford University Press, January 2008.

Focus 3: Gold goes beyond commodities

Gold is often considered part of the broad commodity complex, whether as a component of a commodity index (e.g. S&P GSCI Index, Bloomberg Commodity Index), a security in an ETF or a future trading on a commodity exchange. 

Gold shares some similarities with commodities. But there are several important differences:

  • gold is a traditional safe-haven asset: scarce, yet highly liquid, it offers effective downside portfolio protection during difficult times
  • gold is both an investment and a luxury good, which reduces its correlation to other assets
  • the supply of gold is balanced, deep and broad, limiting uncertainty and volatility 
  • gold does not degrade over time, unlike several traditional commodities

These unique attributes set gold apart from the commodity complex. Not only has gold generally outperformed commodities (Chart 9), but our research suggests that a distinct allocation to gold can enhance the performance of portfolios with passive commodity exposures.14


Chart 9: Gold has outperformed broad-based commodity indices and individual commodities

Chart 9: [UK-ind] Gold has outperformed all broad-based indices and all individual commodities

20-year commodity and commodity index returns*

Sources: Bloomberg, World Gold Council; Disclaimer

*Annualised returns in pound sterling from December 1999 to December 2019. Indices include: S&P GS Energy Index, S&P GS Precious Metals Index, S&P GS Industrial Metals Index, S&P GS Non-Precious Metals Index, LBMA Gold Price PM (£/oz).



Perceptions of gold have changed substantially over the past two decades, reflecting increased wealth in the East and a growing appreciation of gold’s role within an institutional investment portfolio worldwide. 

Gold’s unique attributes as a scarce, highly liquid and un-correlated asset prove that it can act as a genuine diversifier over the long term. 

Gold’s position as an investment and a luxury good has allowed it to deliver average returns of approximately 12% for nearly five decades, comparable to stocks and more than bonds and commodities (see Chart 2).

Gold’s traditional role as a safe-haven asset means it comes into its own during times of high risk. But gold’s dual appeal as an investment and a consumer good means it can generate positive returns in good times too. This dynamic is likely to persist, reflecting the current environment of political and economic uncertainty, historically low interest rates and concerns surrounding stock and bond markets (see 2020 Gold Outlook).

Overall, extensive analysis suggests that adding between 2% and 10% of gold to a pound sterling-based portfolio will make a tangible improvement to performance and boost risk-adjusted returns on a sustainable, long-term basis (see Chart 7).



1See (Chart 7) for more details behind the composition of the hypothetical average UK investment fund portfolio. In addition, refer to important disclaimers and disclosures at the end of this report.

2Willis Towers Watson, Global Pension Assets Study 2019, February 2020 and Global Alternatives Survey 2017, July 2017.


4As of December 2019.

5During the gold standard, the US dollar was backed by gold and foreign exchange rates – for example, the exchange of the pound sterling to the US dollar – were dictated by the Bretton Woods System:

6Qaurum is a web-based quantitative tool that helps investors intuitively understand the drivers of gold’s performance that can be explained by four broad sets of drivers.

7Oxford Economics, The impact of inflation and deflation on the case for gold, July 2011.

8See the demand and supply section at

9Based on the FTSE 100 Index and the LBMA Gold Price PM from the end of December 2007 to the end of February 2009.

10See the holders and trends section at

11Re-sampled Efficiency was developed by Richard and Robert Michaud and praised as a robust alternative to traditional mean-variance optimisation. See Efficient Asset Management: A Practical Guide to Stock Portfolio Optimization and Asset Allocation, Oxford University Press, January 2008.

12Gold as a tactical inflation hedge and long-term strategic asset, July 2009.

13How gold improves alternative asset performance, Gold Investor, Volume 6, June 2014.

14See: Gold: the most effective commodity investment, September 2019, and Gold: metal by design, currency by nature, Gold Investor, Volume 6, June 2014.

Important disclaimers and disclosures

© 2020 World Gold Council. All rights reserved. World Gold Council and the Circle device are trademarks of the World Gold Council or its affiliates.
All references to LBMA Gold Price are used with the permission of ICE Benchmark Administration Limited and have been provided for informational purposes only. ICE Benchmark Administration Limited accepts no liability or responsibility for the accuracy of the prices or the underlying product to which the prices may be referenced. Other content is the intellectual property of the respective third party and all rights are reserved to them. 

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Neither the World Gold Council nor any of its affiliates (collectively, “WGC”) guarantees the accuracy or completeness of any information. WGC does not accept responsibility for any losses or damages arising directly or indirectly from the use of this information.

This information is for educational purposes only. Nothing contained herein is intended to constitute a recommendation, investment advice, or offer for the purchase or sale of gold, any gold-related products or services or any other products, services, securities or financial instruments (collectively, “Services”). This information does not take into account any investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any particular person.    

By receiving this information, you agree with the intended purpose of this information as being for educational purposes only.  Diversification does not guarantee any investment returns and does not eliminate the risk of loss.    

Investors should discuss their individual circumstances with their appropriate investment professionals before making any decision regarding any Services or investments.

This information contains forward-looking statements, such as statements which use the words “believes”, “expects”, “may”, or “suggests”, or similar terminology, which are based on current expectations and are subject to change. Forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties. There can be no assurance that any forward-looking statements will be achieved. WGC assumes no responsibility for updating any forward-looking statements.

Information regarding QaurumSM and the Gold Valuation Framework 

Note that the resulting performance of various investment outcomes that can generated through use of Qaurum, the Gold Valuation Framework and other information are hypothetical in nature, may not reflect actual investment results and are not guarantees of future results. Diversification does not guarantee investment returns and does not eliminate the risk of loss.  World Gold Council and its affiliates and subsidiaries (collectively, “WGC”) provide no warranty or guarantee regarding the functionality of the tool, including without limitation any projections, estimates or calculations.