黄金货币

黄金在国际货币体系中一直扮演着重要角色。吕底亚(今天土耳其境内的一个地区)国王克罗伊斯于公元前550年左右下令铸造了世界上首批金币。在纸币出现以前,这些金币在许多国家作为流通货币。纸币发行后,其与黄金的关联性仍然存在(能够根据需要将纸币兑换成黄金)。

到19世纪末期,世界上许多主要币种都按每盎司黄金的固定价格,与黄金进行兑换,形成“金本位制”。

金本位制以不同的形式持续了大约100年。了解金本位制实际工作原理的更多详情、它的优缺点,以及今天各大贸易经济体重建金本位制的可能性。

为进一步帮助学者、记者和对黄金的货币角色感兴趣的人开展的研究,世界黄金协会委托汇编了1660年至1999年期间的重要历史资料。

每一个引用出处都作了注释,以便读者延伸研究。所以,这些资料对于希望更深入研究黄金历史的研究人员来说是非常宝贵的资源。

共汇编约有150篇文档,基本上按照黄金在国际经济体系中地位的变化情况分成三个部分。

  • 金本位制发展期,1660年 — 1819年
  • 金本位制鼎盛期,1820年 — 1930年
  • 后金本位制时期,1931年 — 1999年

 

 

1660年 — 1819年

Covering the period from the mid-17th century through to the British Government's decision to allow the free exchange of gold, and presenting documents, primarily from the UK, that relate to the establishment of gold coinage as the centrepiece of the British financial system. The documents contained here address four themes: the legal position of gold coinage; popular views of gold; technologies of gold coinage; and early theoretical evaluations of the gold standard.

1660. May 21.

Resolution of the House of Commons to prohibit the exportation of money and bullion from England.

1820年 — 1930年

Covering the period from the establishment of the UK gold standard in the early 19th century until the re-establishment of the gold standard after the First World War. Three themes are dealt with: the legal position of gold in the currency systems of the major western nations; political debates over the role of gold; and international agreements relating to gold. Continental European monetary arrangements are covered in this section, as are several major international agreements from the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

1931年 — 1999年

Covering the period commencing with the breakdown of the post-WW1 gold standard in the 1930s and concluding with the Central Banks' Gold Agreement (Washington Agreement on Gold) of 1999. The documents follow four themes: the collapse of the gold standard; legislation, primarily from the US, relating to gold; the international gold market; and international agreements relating to gold. An account of some of the activities of the London gold market is included. The ultimate collapse of the Bretton Woods system is covered in great detail with numerous documents from various official sources.